Orthopedic surgery is a collection of types of surgery that aims to overcome the diseases that occur in the body’s movement system. Orthopedic surgery can overcome various diseases or injuries that occur in the bones, joints, tendons, ligaments, muscles and nervous muscles. Thanks to orthopedic surgery, patients suffering from diseases of the organs of the body can move back, work and move normally.
Patients with diseases of the movement system will usually undergo non-surgical treatment first. If non-surgical treatment does not effectively cure the disease, the doctor will recommend the patient to have surgery. Non-surgical treatment of orthopedic patients usually takes the form of medication and physiotherapy.
Here are some examples of orthopedic surgery procedures that are performed more frequently:
Which is a surgical procedure with a keyhole-sized incision to see the condition of the joints and overcome joint problems using special tools. Arthroscopy can be performed as a procedure for diagnosing joint diseases and joint treatment techniques. The instrument used for arthroscopy is an arthroscope, a thin tube containing a camera and a surgical instrument.
The installation of the pen, which is a surgical procedure performed by connecting and maintaining the position of broken bones using a pen made up of metal plates and special pins. By installing the pen, the broken bone will return to its original position and will be maintained with the pen during the healing period. In certain circumstances, the revocation of the pen can also be carried out after a certain time.
2) Joint replacement
Artificial Intelligence helps to replace damage joints into new artificial joints, this surgery called joint replacement surgery. The seals can only be partially or partially replaced. Joint replacement surgery is often performed on the pelvis or knee, especially if the joint is swollen or severely damaged. Replacement joints can be plastic, metal or ceramic and are designed to mimic the movements of the original joint so that the patient can still move as before.
3) Bone fusion
Bone fusion is achieved by joining several bones, either with a bone graft or using a metal. Bone fusion is often done on the spine to relieve pain and increase the stability of the spine due to the disease. By combining several vertebrae, there is no more movement between these vertebrae, so the sciatica pain due to movements of the vertebrae will disappear.
It is a surgical procedure that involves cutting and changing the shape of the bones, in particular to repair the joints. An osteotomy is often performed on the knee to repair inflamed knee joints. However, the osteotomy can also be performed on other parts of the body, such as the pelvis, jaw, chin, toes, and spine. A knee osteotomy to treat knee arthritis is usually done in young patients who are not recommended for knee replacement surgery. Indeed, the artificial knee joints are more easily damaged in younger patients than in older patients.
Surgery to repair tendons and ligaments. Tendons and ligaments are connective tissues between bones and muscles. Both can be damaged or torn, which can weaken the joints and limit joint movements and make them painful. Tendons and ligaments can be damaged by strenuous physical activity, especially sports such as football or tendon and ligament repair operations will reconnect the torn tendons and ligaments.
Indications for orthopedic surgery
Orthopedic surgery can be performed to treat a variety of bone and joint diseases and disorders. Each orthopedic surgical technique has its own indications, including:
Arthroscopy can be done to diagnose and treat joint conditions, such as infections or arthritis, joint damage, and ligament damage.
Vertebral fusion can be used to treat vertebral abnormalities, such as scoliosis, vertebral fractures, vertebral tumors, infections, and hernia of the vertebral joints (hernia of the pulp nucleus).
The placement of the pen is done to overcome fractures.
Joint replacement surgery is performed to replace a damaged joint, whether due to inflammation, disease and bone fracture.
The osteotomy is performed to treat joints damaged by inflammation, especially in young patients who are not recommended for joint replacement surgery.
Tendon and ligament repair operations are performed to repair tendons and ligaments that are damaged due to physical activity, especially due to sports.
Patients can undergo a series of surgeries as needed. Orthopedic surgery can also be combined with other non-surgical treatment methods to optimize healing.
Orthopedic surgery warning
In general, to avoid complications from blood loss during surgery, patients will be asked to temporarily stop taking blood thinners, such as aspirin or warfarin. If you are pregnant or planning to become pregnant, you should consult an obstetrician before undergoing orthopedic surgery.
Allergies from patients, especially allergies to latex or anesthesia, can lead to complications during surgery. Therefore, tell your doctor about these allergies before you have surgery.
Preparation for orthopedic surgery
Preparation for orthopedic surgery depends on the surgical technique that the patient will undergo. However, patients will usually need to fast before undergoing orthopedic surgery. Especially patients who will undergo surgery under general anesthesia. Patients must also be accompanied by their families in particular to give birth before and after surgery.
Patients who need a bone graft will be informed of the choice of material for bone graft. Bone grafts can be obtained from the patient’s own bones. But now there are synthetic bone graft materials that can replace the original bone for bone grafting needs. These synthetic bone graft ingredients can be made from ceramic, calcium, or special proteins.
Orthopedic surgery procedure
Orthopedic surgical procedures vary depending on the type of surgery performed and the patient’s bone and joint disease. In general, types of orthopedic surgery are invasive procedures that require incisions in the skin at the location of the bone or joint to function.
Patients undergoing orthopedic surgery will be asked to change their clothing first with special surgical clothing before entering the operating room. The doctor will then place the patient on the operating table depending on the location of the bone or joint to be operated.
Local anesthesia and half the body will keep the patient awake during the surgical procedure, but they will not feel any pain. While general anesthesia will make the patient fall asleep during the operation and wake up when the operation is finished.
The orthopedic doctor will make an incision in the skin depending on the location of the bone or joint that will be operated on. The size of the skin incision is made according to the type of surgery and the technique used. Arthroscopic surgery and osteotomy usually only require one or two small incisions. When placing the pen, an incision will be made along the broken bone.
After making the incision, the doctor will perform the surgical procedure depending on the type of orthopedic surgery to be performed. In arthroscopy, the doctor will insert an arthroscope into the joint to visually see the state of the joint and certain actions. In pen placement surgery, the broken bone will first be placed in its normal position and then held in place with a pen.
Once the surgical procedure is complete, the incision will be closed with sterile sutures and bandages to prevent infection. Patients will be taken to the treatment room for postoperative recovery, especially if they require hospitalization.
After orthopedic surgery
Patients will be able to return home after first undergoing postoperative care or hospitalization. During the recovery period, the patient will be asked to rest and maintain the bones that have undergone surgery so as not to move much.
Patients may experience pain and swelling at the surgical site after undergoing surgery. The doctor will give you pain relievers as well as antibiotics to prevent infections, which are consumed during the recovery period. Doctors recommend to patient a high lumbar support comfy chair after orthopedic surgery.
The doctor will organize the patient’s examination schedule during the recovery period. If the operating area is considered stable enough to be moved, the doctor will organize a physiotherapy program. Physiotherapy will help strengthen the muscles, bones and joints that have been operated on.
The postoperative recovery period is different for each surgical technique, from one to two days to several weeks. During the recovery period, patients cannot smoke because the nicotine in cigarettes can interfere with bone recovery.
Patients should immediately consult the corresponding doctor if, during the recovery period, symptoms appear as:
- Redness and swelling at the operating site.
- Fluid outside the operating site.
- The place of the operation is rigid and tingling.
- The appearance of intense pain that does not improve despite taking painkillers.
- Risks of complications from orthopedic surgery
Some of the risks of complications that can arise from orthopedic surgery include:
- Infection of a surgical wound
- Tissue damage in the area of operation
- The formation of blood clots
- An allergic reaction to anesthesia
- Bleeding and damage to blood vessels
- The joint is stiff
- Chronic joint pain
- Damage to nervous tissue
- Damage to the bones, joints, tendons and ligaments that have been operated on.