In this article, we will talk about the importance of Thermogenesis and energy balance in the loss of fat tissue. These processes may vary depending on the intake of certain foods and periodized physical exercise, which should be used as efficient strategies for increasing basal caloric expenditure and losing excess fat.
We will then analyze them first, Thermogenesis, caloric expenditure, and weight loss, and then continue with the importance of food and the role of proteins in maintaining muscle tissue.
We will continue with the thermogenic effects caused by physical exercise to end with adipocytes, their metabolic role, and their importance in reducing fat weight.
Overweight and thermogenesis
Fat overweight is caused by a prolonged imbalance in the energy balance, that is, between caloric intake and total energy expenditure.
When there is a neutral balance between energy intake and expenditure, the individual keeps his weight stable. If not accompanied by an increase in energy expenditure, an excess intake of calories will produce an increase in energy, which the body will store in the form of adipocytes, ultimately generating drastic changes in body composition.
Generally, in efforts to reduce body fat, many people focus on reducing intake and sticking to a low-calorie diet. Unfortunately, given this, our body quickly adapts to caloric restriction, reducing energy expenditure, so that without physical exercise, said energy expenditure could hardly be positive and healthy.
Total energy expenditure can be divided into different thermogenic processes: mandatory Thermogenesis or basal metabolism, food-induced Thermogenesis, exercise-induced Thermogenesis, and adaptive Thermogenesis. These processes can manifest clear variables in the final caloric expenditure thanks to sympathetic and hormonal stimulation.
Thermogenic processes that influence total energy expenditure
The basal metabolism makes up 60-70% of the total daily energy expenditure. This is defined as the energy consumed by an individual at rest and under conditions of thermoneutrality (28 ° C). This represents vital functions such as respiration and metabolic reactions, which can only vary by approximately 10%.
Another process is food-induced Thermogenesis, which occurs under the processes of digestion, absorption, distribution, and storage of nutrients, representing 10% of daily energy expenditure.
On the other hand, we have exercise-induced Thermogenesis, where energy expenditure can vary greatly depending on the lifestyle: from 10% in sedentary people to 50% in trained subjects. It is essential to consider variables such as intensity, duration of exercise, and body composition, among other aspects. It is noteworthy that physical activity will be decisive in increasing basal metabolism and fat oxidation, mainly high-intensity aerobic exercise that will stimulate the known effect.
Finally, adaptive Thermogenesis refers to the heat produced in response to body thermoregulation or a hypercaloric diet. This process is regulated by sympathetic division and takes place in skeletal muscle and brown fat cells.
It is alarming how the number of people with fat overweight and obesity is growing. This is generally associated with eating disorders, sedentary lifestyles, and hormonal imbalances. Searching for solutions in restrictive diets and abrupt weight loss are wrong strategies.
Weight loss must be progressive, based on a series of changes to reduce adipose tissue and preserve muscle tissue. Quick weight regain is a consequence of decreased body metabolism. If the weight loss is made with restrictive diets, ghrelin is increased, stimulating the appetite even more.
Strength exercise and HIIT are presented as very reliable alternatives since, in addition to caring for muscle tissue, they stimulate the release of a myokine called irisin. This would stimulate the transformation of white to beige adipocytes, thus increasing Thermogenesis.
On the other hand, during exercise, lactate is released in the muscle that would increase the expression of UCP1 and the basal metabolism. Training will be a fundamental pillar, increasing the basal metabolism and ensuring that it is maintained for hours after completing the physical exercise.
On the other hand, protein consumption implies a higher final caloric expenditure since 72% is water and only 28% is protein. This makes it clear that the body seeks to cover somehow the substantial loss of so many proteins lost in a strict diet.
Finally, it is essential to emphasize the importance of the circadian rhythm since it will affect metabolism, mainly in the secretion of hormones and enzymes regulating metabolism.
All the physiological adaptations of our body will tend to regain the lost weight. Given this, it will be essential to plan long-term strategies, apply periodized physical exercise, and a good diet as a basis.